2.1.1 Urbanisation
2.1.2 Anonymity
2.1.3 Collapsed Sociological Enforcement
2.1.4 Commodification Of Persons
2.1.5 Options Due to Mobility
2.1.6 Rapid Networking For Collective Bargaining
2.1.7 Centralised Utilities

2.2 Pluralisation
2.2.1 Unlike Religious and Political Profiles In The Workplace
2.2.2 The Prime Requirement That Private Convictions Do Not Slow Production
2.2.3 Impersonal Production Cause Participation In Unknown Production Outcomes
2.2.4 Diversity as Highest Attribute In Pluralistic Society
2.2.5 Ambient Flow Of Culture In Pluralisation

2.3 Globalisation
2.3.1 Global Communication Systems
2.3.2 Global Entertainment
2.3.3 Global Fashion Cycles
2.4.4 Secular Tribes with new sets of Globalised Values

2.4 Privatisation
2.4.1 Faith that can only function in a Private World
2.4.2 Faith Neutral To Economics That Govern Public World
2.4.3 Civil Religion Replacing Christianity In Public Square
2.4.4 Faith Irrelevant To Government Technique
2.4.5 Faith Has Inability To Function In Public Education

2.5 Centralised Bureaucracy
2.5.1 Standardised Secular Calendar and Time for Economy
2.5.2 Centralised Semiotics - Road Signs, Postal System
2.5.3 Centralised Law and Medical Frameworks
2.5.4 Global Banking Systems

2.6 Self perpetuating high technology
2.6.1 Technology As Simulation of Spirituality
2.6.2 Human Technology Hybrids
2.6.3 AI as Human Replacements
2.6.4 No Scalable Outcomes or End to Technology

2.4 The Battle For Authentic Spiritual Re-Enchantment Within Post-Secular European Culture: Re-enchanted Whole Life Christian Liturgy against Ever Morphing Syncretistic Paganism

In the biography of St. John Chrysostom Frederic Perthes, seeks to create the context in which the great Bishop was born into. He speaks of predominant pagan worldviews that covered the known world. He writes that, “Christianity and Paganism could not permanently exist together, that if the new religion continued, the old must cease; hence they began the warfare against that new power and maintained it for three centuries.”
That warfare continued for the whole of the first millennium until most of Eurasia was brought in varying degrees of purity into Christendom. The counterattack of Islam was and is a parenthesis to the Pagan Christian battle and should be viewed as a separate but important battle. It was Islam and the semi Pagan Hordes of Central Asia that moved the boundaries of Christendom to where they were to lay for most of the next one thousand years.
The second Millennium was dominated by Christendom, defining and redefining itself wherever it had been established within the new Islamic and Mongol Hordes boundaries.
This research project is going to argue that the Third Millennium is beginning its journey through history by a second great pneumachia between Paganism and Christianity. I use the term pneumachia with intent as it fits into a cosmology which will be evident and dominant through the whole work. Naumachia has its roots in the concept of Warfare being created by governing powers to display their strength in a public manner, sometimes even as entertainment. I am going use pneumachia in a similar way but within a specific and intentional cosmology. The Battle will be displayed before the unseen administration authorities in the heavenly places. This pneumachia will have its meaning for the earth but also for the heavenlies.
The research specifies Eurasia as opposed to Europe or in more universal terms of the whole world. The primary reason for this is that as the research unfolds, it will show how the contemporary world has moved into two new powerful ideological frames. Modernity as neo liberalism represented by North America in its exceptionalism hegemony and Eurasianism with its emphasis upon a restored historic traditionalism. It is within the Eurasian frame that this research will focus. The naumachia within the Eurasian milieu will look at emerging paganism in all its forms in contrast to the Post Secular vacuum that has grown in Western Europe in last seventy years. The research will then argue that Western Europe is being consumed by both the Neo-liberal as well as the Eurasian traditionalism. I will argue that Neo-Paganism and a restored traditional Eurasian Christianity both have the power to influence this Neo-liberal and Traditionalist environment but not both. Just as the first millennium showed there was not room for both Christianity and the Pagan, the third millennium will discover the same.



(i) Contemporary Pagan Ideologies in Hungary
(ii) Native Faith and Neopagan Witchcraft in Germany
(iii) Paganism in Ireland: Identity and a Sense of Place
(iv) The Greencraft Temple in Flanders: Balancing Global and Local Heritage in Wicca
(v) Goddess Spirituality in Spain and Portugal and the Quest for Authenticity
(vi) Bellisama and Aradia: Paganism Re-emergent in Italy

(vii) The Quest for a Modern Maltese Paganism
(viii) (viii)Sami Neo-shamanism in Norway: Colonial Grounds, Ethnic Revival and Pagan Pathways
(ix) Reconstruction and Eclecticism in Danish Asatro Paganism
(x) Modern Heathenism in Sweden: A Case Study in the Creation of a Traditional Religion
(xi) The Brotherhood of Wolves in the Czech Republic: From Ásatrú to Primitivism
(xii)Discourse and Siberian Shamanic Revivalism: How Area Spirits Speak through Academia
(xiii) The Contemporary Estonian Maausulised Movement and Nationalist Discourse