As has already been stated, this research project is a Doctor of Ministry and not a PhD. As a result I have sought to combine several different applications of a Doctor of Ministry.
The most advanced accreditation of a Doctor of Ministry is within the Australian educational milieu where the thesis needs to be between 80,000 to 100,000 words. This I have followed.
In several of the American Christian institutions a central part of a Doctor of Ministry programme is the requirement to base ones Thesis upon a clear Biblical foundation with one chapter being devoted to that end. I have followed this, with Chapter One being designated for that purpose.
The word counts on Doctor of Ministry vary anywhere between 50,000 words and 100,000 words but all require that the candidate is able to prove their capacity, competence and gifting to exercise ministry at an advanced level. I have sought to do this in the final chapter.
The Thesis has a very basic set of components built into it. There are subtextual aspects of this Thesis that should be disclosed.
PART ONE THE THEOLOGICAL ROOT - METHOD BROAD EXERGETICAL
The objective of Chapter One is to position the idea, concept and reality of the Sacramental as being rooted in Scripture and then embodied in the common life of the Church throughout history from the Apostolic era up though the various shifts and schisms into the modern age.
I propose that what we call the “Sacramental”, locates itself into a five point structure that stays consistent throughout scripture and Church history.
Due to the fact that the Eucharist is the central feature of the Sacramental I have chosen to use the Biblical narratives of X of the Sacramental meals in the Old and New Testaments. Each of these narratives will be looked at in a “theological exegesis” as opposed to a verse by verse biblical exegesis. The reason for this is that the way the commentaries are played out they do not lend them themselves to step by step post Reformation thinking patterns.
The over arching objective of the Chapter is to show the relationship between, symbol as a form and the reality it represents, or sign and signified and how an ontological outcome was always the intention that God had for His revelation.
PART TWO THE SOCIOLOGICAL ROOT - METHOD SOCIAL THEORETICAL
The method changes dramatically in this second chapter. The objective is to show how decisions made in terms of economics, politics, immigration and class perspectives have the power to create sociological shifts within social constructions. The proposal is that the social construction, referred to as a “Subaltern Partition”, was formed and brought into being as a result of the above mentioned decisions.
All social constructions by default impact consciousness and the consciousness of the group identified as being in a“Subaltern Partition” was the outcome and impact of the sociological processes at work.
The method applied in this section is focused upon the impact of sociological forces rather than simply ideas. The process of urbanisation that took place between 1840 and 1880 in London was the result of a process rather than some urban ideology.
It is this new tribal construction, that I proffer, functioned outside of the dominant cultural value systems of the wider Church, which made the population increasingly marginalised.
PART THREE THE HISTIOGRAPHICAL ROOT - METHOD BIOGRAPHICAL
I have chosen to use the term biographical as opposed to historical or historiographical on purpose. The historiographical within the academic world especially where there has been a history of hagiographic analysis, has taken a normative form of being revisionist. Whereas I understand all the implications of this method I do not see it as always helpful when looking at historic movements that are built around strong personalities. In seeking to show the impact of the High Church Mission movement in the “Subaltern Partition” areas, especially in London, I have chosen to follow a biographical approach, understanding the weaknesses but at the same time not wanting to remove the persons, both mythical and real, from the process.
PART FOUR THE POLEMICAL ROOT - METHOD ACADEMIC DOCUMENTARY
In Chapter Four the focus is upon the antagonistic efforts, almost always acrimonious, of those opposed to the High Church Mission movement. For this section I will be using a standard documentary approach. I break the antagonists down into four basic categories, the Reformed Evangelical Anglican Party led by Bishop JC Ryle, The Protestant Truth Society led John Kensit, The Reformed Baptists led or rather illuminated by CH Spurgeon and then the Establishment Elite as in the case of Queen Victoria, Benjamin Disraeli and Archbishop Archibald Tate forming a pressure group to bring into being the 1874 Public Worship Act. I present the outcome of several court cases whereby those in the High Church Mission movement were persecuted through various means of prosecution.
PART FIVE - EARLY 21ST CENTURY SUBALTERN COMMUNITIES - PART DOCUMENTARY PASRT SPECULATIVE
This section looks at the formation of three subaltern Partitions in the current age. They are Secular Consumerist Society, Spiritually Creative Non Christians and the anti Christian Neo Pagan communities that have emerged particularly in Europe.
PART SIX THE MINISTRY APPLICATION ROOT - METHOD CONJECTURAL AND SPECULATIVE
This section of the Thesis or Dissertation explores the ministry applications of the principles and concepts that have been developed through the earlier chapters. Just as Chapter Two the sociological is that which informs the creation of the “Subaltern Partition” group the proposal is made that with the confluence of Globalisation, Urbanisation, Pluralisation and a centralising of bureaucracy based on Technique, that new groups of “Subaltern Partition” persons are being formed. In this case that are not necessarily living poverty but function and live their lives outside of the dominant value systems of the three branches of Christianity.
The section then uses the same methodological application of the five points of the Sacramental and offers speculative and conjectural frameworks for those five points to be expressed in today’s context.
The overall question that this research project seeks to answer is from where in the spectrum of the Gospel Of Christ, should the avenue of contact begin, for engagement with the emerging de-secularising cultures within modern Western civilisation.
This question is answered through the proposals and arguments of the six chapters within the research project.
Chapter One argues and proposes that the essence of wholeness of the Gospel message is to be found within the kinaesthetic Sacramental and Liturgical rituals of the Old and New Covenant. In the profiled x Sacred Meals there are five defined ways in which God reveals himself to persons, there are also five distinctive characteristics in how that revelation enters into the experience of persons. These attributes, it will be argued also function always within a dialectical tension of Mercy and Judgement. These examples or models act as arbiters
Chapter Two proposes that 19th Century London acts as a microcosm of these principles at work. A profile model is created to show how sociological forces at work through modernity have the result of producing social partitions within social constructions. These Partitions are then developed by way of description to be presented as “Subaltern Partitions” which are defined as emergent communities that are spiritually and social marginalised.
The reason for the marginalisation is that these new social constructions that are created, lay outside of the cultural norms of the social values of the dominant culture at large.
Chapter Three takes the principles established in Chapter One and applies them to the Subaltern Partitions that are shown to exist in Chapter Two. The Oxford Movement and its ideological derivatives are profiled in the High Church Mission groups that were planting Christian communities in some of the areas that were the most extreme cases social deprivation. The contextualisation of their message was by way of delivery within the earlier mentioned kinaesthetic Sacramental and Liturgical rituals.
Chapter Four takes this work, described in Chapter Three and then presents the arguments against the work and the basic hypothesis of those groups who were against the High Church Missions. This is accomplished by giving a documentary analysis of the written and spoken words against the High Church Mission.
Chapter Five takes the outline of the previous chapters to create a similar comparative to how new subaltern Partitions are being created in 21st Century Urban centres. The three specific partitions looked at will be called the Consumerist Partition, which is a reflection of Secular thinking, The Cultural Creative Partition made up of the growing communities of younger people who see their future spiritually within planetary rather than politically Global parameters. The third group being the rapidly expanding Neo pagan Partition that is acting as an aggressively anti Christian worldview, especially in Europe.
Chapter Six seeks to emulate Chapter Three in terms of proposals for Mission that are able to confront, connect and engage with the three Partitions identified.
DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS
The term Subaltern began to be used in relation to those communities that came into being in British Colonial India. It refers to those who are cut off from their original social constructions and also having no place or status within Imperial society. The Marxist use of the term developed into those who are generally considered oppressed by the privileged elite groups on the basis of their place within the economic system. Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak uses this term in a broader sense of not just those who are classically oppressed but anyone who is denied access to main stream life by virtue of their lack of having any status accepted in the given society.
I will using the term in a slightly broader sense as being people who are placed behind partitions in society by virtue of their being and existing outside of the norms of any given dominant social value system.
Three examples help to illustrate the formation or creation of Subaltern Partitions.
In British Imperial India in the 19th Century English soldiers and civil servants often took by force or coercion Indian women to be their concubines. This developed into a creating a posterity of mixed race persons. These persons of mixed race were neither accepted in the main stream of British society nor were they accepted in Indian society. As a result a whole new social construction was created that were forced by their racial mix to be placed into a Subaltern Partition.
In the early years of the Dutch Africans migration to South Africa the European men often went to areas like the Orange Free State without their wives. As a result they took African women as their concubines and created, just as India, a new social construction often referred to as “The Coloureds”. This. Group were neither accepted by the Dutch nor African Tribal communities.
In Asia in the late 1950’s a substantial prostitution economy developed to provide sexual services to American soldiers. This produced a large pool of unwanted mixed race children, this group were added to the growing number of mixed race children born as a result of American soldiers raping Asian women. The resulting community similar to the previous two illustrations was a people forced into a Subaltern Partition. In 1955, 25% of South Korea’s economy was based on the earnings of 300,000 prostitutes that serviced American military personel. There were 30,000 mixed race children left in Vietnam at the end of the war plus the large prostitution population. In the Philippines 100,000 mixed race children (90% born out of wedlock) were the result of American servicemen creating a sex service subaltern community.
Subaltern Partitions can also be created without the obvious moral or ethical implications of the examples given. In short, a subaltern partition is created whenever a group or individual finds themselves living outside of the dominant cultural value system or orthodoxies of the broader societies they live within.
An intersection of Theology, Existential Spirituality, Metaphysics, Aesthetics, Ethics, Epistemology and History
The Value Of Person – Metaphysical Personalism
Beauty As A Command To Repent – Third Transcendental Aesthetics
Sacred Divine Order – Post Propostional Poetic Epistemology
Death Sentence Discipleship – Ethics In Christian Life Choices
Proactive Asceticism – Phenomenology Of Existential Spirituality
An Eschatology Of Hope – History And Prophecy Within Echatological Time
THE CORE IDEA
Logos As Uncreated And Eternal Creator Of All Things In Six Days
Sophia As The Reflection Of The Logos Contemplated On The Seventh Day
In the New Testament the term is further enriched with a christological content, a fact which endows anthropology with new dimensions. For St Paul the “image of the invisible God” is Christ. And man, as we shall see, is the image of the Image. But the Johannine christological term, “Logos of God,” as is well known, also has a meaning similar if not identical to that of the Pauline term, “image of the invisible God.”
The important point about this text is that it constitutes a teaching concerned not with the Trinity but with cosmology and anthropology. That is to say, it is not so much the relationship of the Logos to the Father which is stressed in this text—a relationship of course which is presupposed and which Paul develops elsewhere—as the significance of Christ for man.
Philo to refer(s) to the logos as the First-Begotten Son of the Uncreated Father (Conf 146; Somn 1.215), the Chief of the Angels (Heres 205), the High Priest of the Cosmos (Fuga 108), and the Man of God (Conf 41, 63, 146). What was common to all of these designations of the logos was the intermediate role that the logos played between the transcendent God and the rest of the universe.
For a Hellenistic Jew living in Alexandria, Philo (30 BCE -50 CE) had an unusual ability to probe deeply into the sub textual “Sod” of the Septuagint. As a contextual frame to view the use of the word logos he is able to give a clear outline that would inform the readers of John 1:1-11.
When speaking of logos he says,”And many names are his, for he is called, “the Beginning,” and the Name of God, and His Word, and the Man after His image, and “he that sees,” that is Israel. He writes in a form that could easily be mistaken for Chalcedonian Trinitarianism when he write decades before the birth of the Lord Jesus Christ. “ Let us, then, have recourse to the scientific mode of interpretation which looks for the hidden meaning of the literal words” in this statement he is setting the stage for what is to come by using a Midrash style of hermeneutic. He then amplifies with, “We say, then, that the High Priest is not a man, but a Divine Word and immune from all unrighteousness whether intentional or unintentional.”
He develops logos as protokos when he writes, “For that man is the eldest son, whom the Father of all raised up, and elsewhere calls him His first-born, and indeed the Son thus begotten followed the ways of his Father, and shaped the different kinds, looking to the archetypal patterns which that Father supplied.”
Philo perhaps more than any other great minds of the Jewish faith has a clear and unambiguous aspiration for the triune.
For there are, as is evident, two temples of God: one of them this universe, in which there is also as High Priest His First-born, the divine Word, and the other the rational soul, whose Priest is the real Man; the outward and visible image of whom is he who offers the prayers and sacrifices handed down from our fathers, to whom it has been committed to wear the aforesaid tunic, which is a copy and replica of the whole heaven, the intention of this being that the universe may join with man in the holy rites and man with the universe.
And therefore when I hear those who say “We are all sons of one man, we are peaceful” (Gen. 42:11), I am filled with admiration for the harmonious concert which their words reveal. “Ah! my friends,” I would say, “how should you not hate war and love peace—you who have enrolled yourselves as children of one and the same Father, who is not mortal but immortal—God’s Man, who being the Word of the Eternal must needs himself be imperishable?”
For that man is the eldest son, whom the Father of all raised up, and elsewhere calls him His first-born, and indeed the Son thus begotten followed the ways of his Father, and shaped the different kinds, looking to the archetypal patterns which that Father supplied.
In the Gospel of John Logos is used in the form initially as a Hymn.
The Gospel is above all else written as a Tragedy but a Tragedy with the twist that brings victory. It follows Aristotle’s outline of the Dramatic Tragedy with a Plot (Mythos) that is structured around the Character (Ethos) of a clear Thought or Theme (Dianoia).
This Plot has order in its communication (Lexis) and a clear Choreography or melody (Melos) which ultimately is revealed in a Spectacle (Opsis).
The Spectacle in the form of narrative of the Logos intervening as a Representation (Mimesis) in Human history through the incarnation is an issue of conflict with the powers of darkness who are represented by Pride (Hubris). It is the arrogance of Satan in his deception of humanity into believing a lie about God that the Incarnate Logos has come to destroy.
In turn the Evil One seeks to bring retribution (Nemesis) upon the Godhead by scheming death for the Son of God. He makes the ultimate miscalculation (Harmatia) by causing through the Son of God going to the Cross, his own destruction.
This death on the Cross is antecedent to the Recognition (Anagnorisis ) of the Reversal (Peripeteia) of the power of sin and death.
APPREHENSION OF MULTIPLICITIES
The term Technique in the philosophical sense of the word is usually to connected to and often attributed to Jacques Ellul. Ellul saw Technique as not just a method but a non material form of technology. I prefer a Deleuze term “mechanic assemblage” with a prescribed outcome (which is very much not Deleuze). In short, a mechanic assemblage of ideas are brought together and tested as a hypothesis to the end of finding the most efficient and optimal route to accomplish a goal. It is worth thinking of Technique as a machine without any material parts.
For this research the role of technique is vital to understand as it does dominate the realm of social order constructions within late Modernity as well as being, sadly a replacement for historic spirituality within the non Roman Catholic, western Christian traditions.