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Factbook | Second Adam › Key Passages

The Revised Standard Version

Romans 5:12–21

12 Therefore as sin came into the world through one man and death through sin, and so death spread to all men because all men sinned— 13 sin indeed was in the world before the law was given, but sin is not counted where there is no law. 14 Yet death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those whose sins were not like the transgression of Adam, who was a type of the one who was to come. 15 But the free gift is not like the trespass. For if many died through one man’s trespass, much more have the grace of God and the free gift in the grace of that one man Jesus Christ abounded for many. 16 And the free gift is not like the effect of that one man’s sin. For the judgment following one trespass brought condemnation, but the free gift following many trespasses brings justification. 17 If, because of one man’s trespass, death reigned through that one man, much more will those who receive the abundance of grace and the free gift of righteousness reign in life through the one man Jesus Christ. 18 Then as one man’s trespass led to condemnation for all men, so one man’s act of righteousness leads to acquittal and life for all men. 19 For as by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners, so by one man’s obedience many will be made righteous. 20 Law came in, to increase the trespass; but where sin increased, grace abounded all the more, 21 so that, as sin reigned in death, grace also might reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.

1 Corinthians 15:44–49

44 It is sown a physical body, it is raised a spiritual body. If there is a physical body, there is also a spiritual body. 45 Thus it is written, “The first man Adam became a living being”; the last Adam became a life-giving spirit. 46 But it is not the spiritual which is first but the physical, and then the spiritual. 47 The first man was from the earth, a man of dust; the second man is from heaven. 48 As was the man of dust, so are those who are of the dust; and as is the man of heaven, so are those who are of heaven. 49 Just as we have borne the image of the man of dust, we shall also bear the image of the man of heaven.

Adam, and Jesus Christ

Paul presents Jesus Christ as both the last Adam, succeeding where the first Adam failed, and the second man, standing at the head of a new humanity.

The contrast between the first and second Adam
Ro 5:14 By his sin Adam brought universal misery on humanity. In this he is the foreshadower and prototype of Jesus Christ, who through his righteous act brings the universal hope of redemption.

The contrast in nature of the first Adam and the second Adam
Adam was a living being; Jesus Christ is a life-giving being 1Co 15:45

Adam was natural, Jesus Christ is spiritual 1Co 15:46

Adam was earthly, Jesus Christ is heavenly 1Co 15:47

The contrast in the consequences of the actions of the first Adam and the second Adam
Adam brought death, Jesus Christ brings life Ro 5:15,17; 1Co 15:21-23

Adam brought judgment, Jesus Christ brings justification Ro 5:16,18-19

The assurance this doctrine brings 1Co 15:48-49 See also Php 3:20-21

See also

Martin H. Manser, Dictionary of Bible Themes: The Accessible and Comprehensive Tool for Topical Studies (London: Martin Manser, 2009).